Transient cardiac dysfunction but elevated cardiac and kidney biomarkers 24 h following an ultra-distance running event in Mexican Tarahumara.
Extreme physiology & medicine 2017 ; 6: 3.
Christensen DL, Espino D, Infante-Ramírez R, Cervantes-Borunda MS, Hernández-Torres RP, Rivera-Cisneros AE, Castillo D, Westgate K, Terzic D, Brage S, Hassager C, Goetze JP, and Kjaergaard J
PubMed ID : 29238569
PMCID : PMC5725886
The Mexican Tarahumara are accustomed to running ultra-distance races. No data exist on the acute physiological changes following ultra-distance running and physiological-biomarker associations in this population. Thus, we aimed to investigate the acute impact (≤ 24 h) on functional and biochemical changes of the cardiac muscle and biochemical changes associated with kidney function following a 63-km ultra-distance race with an altitude difference of 1800 m in Mexican Tarahumara athletes.
Ten Tarahumara male athletes (mean ± SD age = 29.9 ± 6.6 years) volunteered to participate in the study. VOmax was assessed by a sub-maximal step test individually calibrated combining heart rate and accelerometry. Standard transthoracic echocardiography methodology and venipuncture blood tests were carried out at four time points: pre-race, immediately post-race, 6 h, and 24 h post-race.
Estimated mean VOmax was 54.5 (± 8.8) mL O min kg and average physiological activity intensity was 746 (± 143) J min kg (~ 11.5 METs). When compared to pre-race values, significant changes in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and LV end-diastolic volume (- 15%, < 0.001 for both parameters), cardiac output (39%, < 0.001), and maximal longitudinal velocity (- 13%, < 0.009) were seen post-race with LVEF also being decreased at < 6 h post-race (- 8%, < 0.014). Plasma biomarkers mid-regional pro-atrial natriuretic peptide, copeptin-ultra sensitive, and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T remained significantly elevated at 24 h post-race, and the two latter were inversely associated with LVEF ( < 0.04). Kidney dysfunction was indicated by increased post-race copeptin-ultra sensitive.
The athletes participating in this study had acute transient cardiac dysfunction as assessed by echocardiography but elevated cardiac and kidney biomarkers at 24 h following a 63-km race with extreme altitude variation.