Cardiorespiratory Fitness, Physical Activity, and Insulin Resistance in Children.
Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 2019
Haapala EA, Wiklund P, Lintu N, Tompuri T, Väistö J, Finni T, Tarkka IM, Kemppainen T, Barker AR, Ekelund U, Brage S, and Lakka TA
DOI : 10.1249/MSS.0000000000002216
PubMed ID : 31764464
URL : https://journals.lww.com/acsm-msse/Abstract/publishahead/Cardiorespiratory_Fitness,_Physical_Activity,_and.96446.aspx
Few studies have investigated the independent and joint associations of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and body fat percentage (BF%) with insulin resistance in children. We investigated the independent and combined associations of CRF and BF% with fasting glycaemia and insulin resistance and their interactions with physical activity (PA) and sedentary time among 452 children aged 6-8 years.
We assessed CRF with a maximal cycle ergometer exercise test and used allometrically scaled maximal power output (Wmax) for lean body mass (LM) and body mass (BM) as measures of CRF. BF% and LM were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, fasting glycaemia by fasting plasma glucose, and insulin resistance by fasting serum insulin and Homeostatic Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR). PA energy expenditure (PAEE), moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), and sedentary time were assessed by combined movement and heart rate sensor.
Wmax/LM was not associated with glucose (β=0.065, 95% CI=-0.031 to 0.161), insulin (β=-0.079, 95% CI=-0.172 to 0.015), or HOMA-IR (β=-0.065, 95% CI=-0.161 to 0.030). Wmax/BM was inversely associated with insulin (β=-0.289, 95% CI=-0.377 to -0.200) and HOMA-IR (β=-0.269, 95% CI=-0.359 to -0.180). BF% was directly associated with insulin (β=0.409, 95% CI=0.325 to 0.494) and HOMA-IR (β=0.390, 95% CI=0.304 to 0.475). Higher Wmax/BM, but not Wmax/LM, was associated with lower insulin and HOMA-IR in children with higher BF%. Children with higher BF% and who had lower levels of MVPA or higher levels of sedentary time had the highest insulin and HOMA-IR.
Children with higher BF% together with less MVPA or higher levels of sedentary time had the highest insulin and HOMA-IR. CRF appropriately controlled for body size and composition using LM was not related to insulin resistance among children.