Evaluation of (-)-epicatechin metabolites as recovery biomarker of dietary flavan-3-ol intake.
Scientific reports 2019 ; 9: 13108.
Ottaviani JI, Fong R, Kimball J, Ensunsa JL, Gray N, Vogiatzoglou A, Britten A, Lucarelli D, Luben R, Grace PB, Mawson DH, Tym A, Wierzbicki A, Wareham NJ, Forouhi NG, Khaw KT, Schroeter H, and Kuhnle GGC
DOI : 10.1038/s41598-019-49702-z
PubMed ID : 31511603
URL : https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-019-49702-z
Data from dietary intervention studies suggest that intake of (-)-epicatechin mediates beneficial vascular effects in humans. However, population-based investigations are required to evaluate associations between habitual intake and health and these studies rely on accurate estimates of intake, which nutritional biomarkers can provide. Here, we evaluate a series of structurally related (-)-epicatechin metabolites (SREM), particularly (-)-epicatechin-3'-glucuronide, (-)-epicatechin-3'-sulfate and 3'-O-methyl-(-)-epicatechin-5-sulfate (SREM), as flavan-3-ol and (-)-epicatechin intake. SREM in urine proved to be a specific indicator of (-)-epicatechin intake, showing also a strong correlation with the amount of (-)-epicatechin ingested (R: 0.86 (95% CI 0.8l; 0.92). The median recovery of (-)-epicatechin as SREM in 24 h urine was 10% (IQR 7-13%) and we found SREM in the majority of participants of EPIC Norfolk (83% of 24,341) with a mean concentration of 2.4 ± 3.2 µmol/L. Our results show that SREM are suitable as biomarker of (-)-epicatechin intake. According to evaluation criteria from IARC and the Institute of Medicine, the results obtained support use of SREM as a recovery biomarker to estimate actual intake of (-)-epicatechin.