An epidemiological model for prediction of endometrial cancer risk in Europe.
European Journal of Epidemiology 2014 ; 31: 51-60.
Hüsing A, Dossus L, Ferrari P, Tjønneland A, Hansen L, Fagherazzi G, Baglietto L, Schock H, Chang-Claude J, Boeing H, Steffen A, Trichopoulou A, Bamia C, Katsoulis M, Krogh V, Palli D, Panico S, Onland-Moret NC, Peeters PH, Bueno-de-Mesquita HB, Weiderpass E, Gram IT, Ardanaz E, Obón-Santacana M, Navarro C, Sánchez-Cantalejo E, Etxezarreta N, Allen NE, Khaw KT, Wareham N, Rinaldi S, Romieu I, Merritt MA, Gunter M, Riboli E, and Kaaks R
PubMed ID : 25968175
Endometrial cancer (EC) is the fourth most frequent cancer in women in Europe, and as its incidence is increasing, prevention strategies gain further pertinence. Risk prediction models can be a useful tool for identifying women likely to benefit from targeted prevention measures. On the basis of data from 201,811 women (mostly aged 30-65 years) including 855 incident EC cases from eight countries in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort, a model to predict EC was developed. A step-wise model selection process was used to select confirmed predictive epidemiologic risk factors. Piece-wise constant hazard rates in 5-year age-intervals were estimated in a cause-specific competing risks model, five-fold-cross-validation was applied for internal validation. Risk factors included in the risk prediction model were body-mass index (BMI), menopausal status, age at menarche and at menopause, oral contraceptive use, overall and by different BMI categories and overall duration of use, parity, age at first full-term pregnancy, duration of menopausal hormone therapy and smoking status (specific for pre, peri- and post-menopausal women). These variables improved the discriminating capacity to predict risk over 5 years from 71% for a model based on age alone to 77% (overall C statistic), and the model was well-calibrated (ratio of expected to observed cases = 0.99). Our model could be used for the identification of women at increased risk of EC in Western Europe. To achieve an EC-risk model with general validity, a large-scale cohort-consortium approach would be needed to assess and adjust for population variation.